Adult Canine Vaccination and Wellness Protocol
Yearly for all dogs –
Yearly for dogs with outdoor exposure –
Every two years for all dogs –
Diseases Prevented By Vaccines and Parasite Control
Rabies is a fatal virus that affects the central nervous system of almost all mammals, including humans. The virus is most common in dogs, bats, cats, and raccoons. It is spread by contact with saliva on an open wound of the skin. The virus causes behavior changes, seizures and death. Rabies vaccination is required by law. Rabies vaccinations should be given at 12 or 16 weeks, boostered in 1 year, then boostered every 1 or 3 years depending on the vaccine used, and the state law. The ValueVet at PETCO recommends vaccinating for Rabies every 2 years in order to maintain the proper level of protection.
Rabies, a polioencephalitis virus, is a fatal viral disease that affects the central nervous system of almost all mammals, including humans. It is commonly spread by contact with saliva through bites or a break in the skin. There is no cure for the disease once the symptoms occur. Vaccination gives resistance from contracting rabies in case of exposure.
When a rabid animal bites another animal or a human, the virus particles are injected by the teeth through the skin. Once inside the new host, the virus travels toward the brain through the nerves and spinal cord. From the brain, the virus spreads to other parts of the body and gets into the saliva by entering the salivary glands.
The cycle of transmission is completed usually between two to six weeks, on average. Occasionally this cycle takes much longer (a feature of rabies), which has an impact on control procedures. Once the virus particles enter the saliva, the animal is in the terminal stage of the disease and usually dies within a few days.
Not all exposures to the rabies virus are a result of a bite from an animal exhibiting savage behavior. Humans have been exposed by coming into contact with saliva while examining the mouth of an animal not suspected of being rabid. This can happen when the animal, instead of behaving in the classical furious manner, progresses rapidly to a paralyzed state.
Rabies in humans can be prevented either by eliminating exposures to rabid animals, or in exposed persons, by prompt local wound treatment with appropriate passive and active immunization. The Rabies vaccination for pets is required by law because the disease can be transmitted to humans and is fatal.
Commonly referred to as the “Distemper Combination”, the DHPP 5 in 1 and DHPPC 6 in 1 vaccination provides protection from Distemper, Hepatitis (Adenovirus type 2), Parainfluenza, & Parvovirus. The 6 in 1 vaccination provides protection against the aforementioned diseases, as well as against Conrona Virus. This vaccination is the most important vaccinationfor the health and wellness of your pet and should be started at 8 weeks of age. This vaccine should then be boostered every 3-4 weeks until 4 months old. After the puppy reaches 4 months of age, this vaccine should be repeated yearly. Below are descriptions of the diseases from which the Distemper Combination vaccination protects puppies & dogs.
This is the most important of all the vaccines for your dog and puppy. This virus is part of what the DHPP, or 5 in 1 (or DHPPC 6 in 1), vaccine fights. This is the "D" in DHPP, DHPPC, or the main part of the 5 in 1 and 6 in 1 vaccine. Distemper is widespread, serious, often deadly, and can affect almost any carnivore, wild or domestic. Canine distemper is a contagious viral disease, seen most frequently in puppies 3 to 6 months old, but dogs of all ages are at risk. Early signs of the disease are fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, conjunctivitis (runny eyes), and sometimes a nasal discharge.
As the disease progresses, symptoms include diarrhea, pneumonia, convulsions, and paralysis. Prevention by vaccination is recommended as the essential means of controlling canine distemper. Start vaccinating ideally at 8 weeks, then re-vaccinate every 2-4 weeks until 16 weeks, then annual booster.
Called "The Great Masquerader", canine distemper disease can infect any organ system, but frequently attacks the nervous system. 90% of dogs that become infected will die. The disease is difficult to survive, since young puppies are most frequently infected. Thus, vaccination is essential.
Another component of the DHPP 5 in 1 and DHPPC 6 in 1 vaccine. Infectious Canine Hepatitis is a contagious viral disease that affects the dog's liver, primarily. Early signs are similar to those seen in Distemper. The disease is transmitted by direct contact with urine from an infected dog. The canine strain of hepatitis does not cause hepatitis in humans.
This disease can cause fever, enlarged liver, pain, and even death. It can also cause respiratory tract illness. Vaccinationwith the Adenovirus Type 2 vaccine (CAV-2) is very effective in preventing this disease.
Adenovirus type 1 causes Hepatitis, but you never want to vaccinate with with the Adenovirus 1 (CAV-1) vaccine, which can cause severe side-effects (blue-eye, kidney infections). Adenovirus type 2 causes pneumonia. Respiratory tract illness caused by type 2 is spread by aerosol droplets. The vaccine (type 2, CAV-2) provides protection for both type 1 and type 2 infections and is the vaccine the Animal Medical Clinic uses.
Another part of the DHPP 5 in 1 or DHPPC 6 in 1 vaccines. This virus causes bloody diarrhea and vomiting, and mainly infects puppies. Parvo is highly contagious and difficult to survive – dogs must be hospitalized to live. The bills can easily reach over $1,000 and the dog may still die. Vaccination is the only preventative course of action.
Transmission of Parvovirus organisms occurs through the infected dog's feces and can be transported on the fur/hair or feet of infected dogs, on clothing and by contact with inanimate objects like food bowls and toys. The virus is particularly resistant and can persist in the environment for many months. Minimizing contact with other dogs and their stool and the use of a chlorine-based disinfectant can control the spread of the disease to some degree.
Parvovirus is highly contagious, and attacks rapidly dividing cells, most commonly intestinal cells, and sometimes the heart muscle cells as well. Because the intestinal cells are destroyed, nothing is able to be absorbed in the intestines, and violent, bloody diarrhea and vomiting results. Secondary endotoxic shock occurs, forming infection through the denuded intestinal tract. Dogs in this condition quickly dehydrate. Giving any food or medications by mouth to a dog infected with Parvovirus only worsens the situation, therefore parvoviral infections require hospital stays to receive intravenous medications and hydration. Even hospitalization and treatment does not ensure recovery from Parvovirus. Therefore, vaccination is recommended – ideally starting at 8 weeks old, vaccinating every 2-4 weeks until at least 16 week of age, then booster annually.
Another part of the DHPP 5 in 1 and DHPPC 6 in 1 vaccines. Parainfluenza is a common, highly contagious, viral upper respiratory disease. The signs may be very mild, but may progress if other conditions exist. Since signs are mild, the disease can be spread to other unprotected dogs without being readily noticed.
Transmitted by sneezing or coughing (nasal secretions by infected dogs), Parainfluenza contributes to upper respiratory disease and infection tracheobronchitis. The vaccine to protect against this disease is combined with other vaccines (in 5 and 6 in 1 vaccine) to offer broader protection. We recommend starting vaccination as early as 8 weeks old, vaccinating every 2-4 weeks until 16 weeks old, then booster annually.
Corona virus infection looks like and is similar to Parvo. It causes bloody diarrhea and vomiting. However, it is less severe than Parvo, and dogs can usually survive. Nevertheless, we still feel it is important to prevent this infection. Although dogs (usually) live through the painful effects of the infection, it still causes suffering for the dogs. Additionally, Corona can be transmitted to cats causing a fatal disease. Furthermore, the Corona Virus of some kind is also linked to human SARs (though not necessarily Canine Coronavirus). Puppies and old dogs are particularly at risk. The vaccine should be given starting at 8 weeks of age, boostered every 2-4 weeks until 16 weeks old, then annual booster.
Coronavirus is extremely similar to Parvovirus, attacking the cells of the intestines. However, the intestinal cells are able to regenerate in fewer days when affected by Coronavirus than with infection from Parvovirus. Therefore, there is more likelihood of recovery from Coronavirus than there is from Parvo.
Corona Virus is often under-diagnosed, and there is no test to detect the virus. The clinical signs of Corona are diarrhea, vomiting, and depression. It is most commonly seen in young puppies. Treatment is symptomatic (supportive), and again requires hospitalization for intravenous medications and hydration. The virus is transmitted by contact with feces from an infected dog, or contaminated objects. Vaccination is the best method of ensuring protection from Coronavirus.
Coronavirus of dogs can infect cats and cause an FIP-like disease that is fatal. Coronavirus is the virus identified as causing human SARS after mutating from an animal species virus; however, you cannot contract SARs from a sick dog.
Bordetella Bronchiseptica is a bacterial agent that causes the respiratory disease, kennel cough. The kennel cough disease can also be caused by a lot of other viruses & bacteria. It is like the different strains of the flu. Specific types of infectious agents causing this disease are the viral agents Canine Adenovirus Type 1 and Type 2, and Canine Parainfluenza. These highly contagious airborne agents cause mild to severe inflammation of the trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Kennel cough is characterized by a harsh, chronic cough, as well as possible nasal discharge and sneezing. It is usually considered to be a self-limiting disease, unless pneumonia develops from secondary bacterial complications. The dry, non-productive cough may last for weeks to months after the resolution of the clinical disease due to the damage done to the trachea. Most boarding facilities require this vaccine; and dogs that live in shelters, pounds, or kennels should receive protection through vaccination.
Please note: This vaccine does not prevent a dog from acquiring Kennel Cough (the lay term for Bordetella-type respiratory syndromes); however, it does help prevent a dog from developing pneumonia from a case of Kennel Cough.
Bordetella is a bacteria that causes kennel cough. Vaccines do not protect against bacteria; rather, they stimulate immunity against viruses. This vaccine is actually an inactivated form of the bacteria that will stimulate enough immunity to reduce the severity of the disease. In short, the Bordetella vaccine aids in the prevention of the development of pneumonia caused by kennel cough. Therefore, vaccination is recommended.
There are 2 types of this vaccine: 1) Intranasal, which provides more immediate, local immunity. Dogs may sneeze or have a runny nose for a few days afterward. 2) Injectable, which provides longer lasting immunity, but takes longer to develop immunity. Dogs may get a mild fever or muscle aches after the vaccination.
The Intranasal Bordetella Vaccine requires only one dose in adult dogs, but immunity is only a couple months. Puppies should receive a booster every 2 to 4 weeks (starting at 8 weeks), until they reach 16 weeks old. But again, immunity is not long-lasting. The injectable Bordetella Vaccine should be boostered as most, and will provide long-lasting immunity. However, there is a higher incidence of reactions and side-effects from this vaccine variety, and a slight sting upon injection.
Parasite Testing and Prevention
Heartworm disease can infect both cats and dogs. This disease is spread by mosquito bite. Heartworms are 12 inch worms that live in the heart and impede the heart’s functioning. Dogs can develop heart failure over several years and can die. For more information, please visit our Canine Heartworm page.
Protection from heartworms can be provided by a monthly, chewable pill, such as Iverheart or Heartgard. Dogs over 6 months of age must be tested for heartworms prior to starting the preventative. Adult dogs should be tested annually, even if they have not missed a single dose of preventative. Any dog that misses several months of preventative, should be tested before starting preventative again, and in 6 months.
Puppies should start preventative before 6 months old (8 weeks, ideally). Puppies do not require heartworm testing if under 6 months of age.
- II. Canine Heartworm Testing
The Animal Medical Clinic offers Heartworm Testing for dogs. Our veterinarians do this by collecting a blood sample in a collection tube. Blood samples collected are be sent to a lab at once for "batch" testing. If the test is performed in the field, a “snap test” is used. This is an occult test for antigens in the blood that are only present if there are mature Heartworms in the dog’s heart. If the tests are batched and performed in a lab setting, a “well test” is done first on all the samples. Any blood sample that shows a positive result on the well test is then retested with a snap test for accuracy. The well test is also an occult test for heartworm antigen.
Unless your pet’s Heartworm Test was performed in the field, the blood sample will be tested within our hospital laboratory. The results of blood tests that are performed at our lab are reported to the client by phone within 7-10 working days. If you have not heard back about your blood test within 7-10 business days, than the test is normal. No news is good news.
All dogs must be tested annually to renew their prescription for heartworm preventative. Clients whose pets were tested at another facility may be required show proof of a negative heartworm test within the past year to fill a prescription from another veterinarian.
Dogs 6 months of age or younger do not need to be tested to begin heartworm preventative. Clients with puppies under 6 months of age should be informed of heartworm disease and prevention, and advised to purchase the first year’s supply of heartworm preventative.
Clients who purchase preventative at the time of testing should not administer any preventative for 10 business days. If after 10 days the client has not heard from the Animal Medical Clinic Laboratory, their test is normal and they may begin administering the preventative. If their dog should test positive for Heartworms (the dog has heartworm disease) the Animal Medical Clinic will discuss heartworm treatment options at our full service veterinary hospital or with a hospital of their choice. In a test-positive situation, the client will be refunded for purchased heartworm preventative.
A fecal test is performed with a stool sample, and is done for dogs as well as cats or ferrets. The test is for intestinal parasites such as hookworms, roundworms, whipworms , coccidia, and giardia.
The type of fecal test performed is a fecal flotation test, and this checks for eggs of parasites. The type of egg present in the stool tells what parasites are present. The results reported to the pet owner include the type of parasite found.
The Animal Medical Clinic deworms pets for hookworms, roundworms, and tapeworms. All other parasites that may be found on the fecal test require a special medication that will be recommended if required.
A fecal test can be done on any animal of any age, but is especially important in young animals. Baby animals can be born with parasites (from their mother) and are much more susceptible to serious complications, including death, from a large infection of worms.
Free Examination With Any Vaccination!
Our affordable Veterinary services are brought to you by:
The Animal Medical Clinic
The first choice in Minneapolis, MN for honest, cost-effective, and premium-quality veterinary care.